METER Legacy Thermal Properties

METER Legacy Thermal Properties

KD2 Pro Thermal Properties Instrument

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  • Picture

  • Description

    Portable

    The KD2 Pro is a fully portable field and lab thermal properties analyzer developed out of 30+ years of research experience on heat and mass transfer in soils and other porous materials. Tested against known standards, the KD2 Pro uses the transient line heat source method to measure thermal conductivity, resistivity, diffusivity, and specific heat.

    Accurate

    The compact KD2 Pro controller is much more than a simple readout for time and temperature. A proprietary algorithm fits time and temperature data with exponential integral functions using a nonlinear least squares method. This fully mathematical solution delivers thermal conductivity/resistivity to within ±10%.

    Correct

    The KD2 Pro corrects for temperature drift. Temperature changes of a thousandth of a degree per second—the sun warming the soil, or someone walking into the lab— destroy the accuracy of thermal properties calculations. Unlike other thermal needle systems, the KD2 Pro corrects for linear temperature drift that cause erroneous readings.

    Complies with ASTM, and IEEE Standards

    For more information, see this application note.

  • Specifications

     

    ACCURACY± 5 to ± 10% Thermal Conductivity/Resistivity

    ± 10% Specific Heat

    ± 10% Thermal Diffusivity

    MEASUREMENT SPEED1, 2, 5, & 10 min. read times depending on measurement type (see user’s manual for more information).
    DATA STORAGE4,095 readings, flash memory
    COMPLIANCE TO STANDARDSASTM Standard D5334-08 and IEEE Standard 442-1981
    OPERATING ENVIRONMENT OF SENSORS-50 °C to 150 °C
    BATTERY SOURCE4 AA
    AUTO-READ MODEUsers can collect unattended data at user-defined intervals in the auto-read mode
    TYPEUltra low-power 16-bit microcontroller w/ 24-bit A/D converter
    DISPLAYLiquid Crystal Display (LCD) 7.5 cm x 4 cm
    CASE DIMENSIONS15.5 cm x 9.5 cm x 3.5 cm
    INCLUDED ACCESSORIESKS-1 Thermal Conductivity/Resistivity sensor (for liquids)

    TR-1 Thermal Conductivity/Resistivity sensor (for solids)

    SH-1 Dual-Needle Thermal Diffusivity and Specfic Heat sensor (for solids)

    User’s manual

    Pelican carrying case

    Readout stand

    Performance verification standards

    Thermal grease

    Drill bit for drilling pilot holes in materials

    Concrete pilot pin

    KD2 Pro download utility

    RS232 cable

    CALIBRATIONEach KD2 Pro comes factory calibrated and includes performance verification standards
    RANGE OF MEASUREMENTSK: 0.02 to 4 Wm-1 C-1

    D: 0.1 to 1.0 mm2s-1

    R: 0.25 to 50mC W-1

    C: 0.5 to 4 MJ m-3 C-1

    * Accuracy and measurement range vary with sensor type. See Comparisons.

     

    COMPARISONS

    SENSORTR-1RK-1KS-1SH-1
    MEASUREMENTRead time- 5 MinutesRead time- 10 MinutesRead time- 60 SecondsRead time- 2 Minutes
    ACCURACY(Conductivity): ±10% from 0.2 – 4 W/(m· K)
    ±0.02 W/(m· K) from 0.01 – 0.2 W/(m· K)
    (Conductivity): ±10% from 0.2 – 6 W/(m· K)
    ±0.02 W/(m· K) from 0.1 – 0.2 W/(m· K)
    (Conductivity): ±5% from 0.2 – 2 W/(m· K)
    ±0.01 W/(m· K) from 0.02 – 0.2 W/(m· K)
    (Conductivity) ±10% from 0.2 – 2 W/(m· K)
    ±0.01 W/(m· K) from 0.02 – 0.2 W/(m· K)
    (Diffusivity) ±10% at conductivities above 0.1 W/(m· K)
    (Volumetric Specific Heat) ±10% at conductivities above 0.1 W/(m· K)
    RANGESK: 0.1 to 4 W/(m·K)

    R: 25 to 1000 °C·cm/W

    K: 0.1 to 6 W/(m·K)

    R: 17 to 1000 °C cm/W

    K: 0.02 to 2 W/(m·K)

    R: 50 to 5000 °C cm/W

    K: 0.02 to 2.00 W /(m· K)

    R: 50 to 5000 °C·cm/W

    0.1 to 1 mm2/s (diffusivity)

    0.5 to 4 mJ/(m3K) (volumetric specific heat

    ENVIRONMENT–50 to 150 °C–50 to 150 °C–50 to 150 °C–50 to 150 °C
    DIMENSIONS10 cm length

    2.4 mm diameter

    6 cm length

    3.9 mm diameter

    6 cm length

    1.27 mm diameter

    30 mm length

    1.30 mm diameter

    2 needles, 6 mm spacing

    SAMPLE SIZESample size is dependent on the thermal properties of the material being tested. In general a 2cm radius of sample material around the needle(s) is sufficient for samples with thermal conductivities around 0.5 W/mK. Samples with lower conductivity (i.e. insulation) can be tested with a smaller sample size. Samples with a higher conductivity (i.e. granite) will require a larger sample to avoid boundary effects.

    KD2 Pro Sensor Compatibility

    SAMPLE MATERIALTR-1RK-1KS-1SH-1
    LOW VISCOSITY LIQUIDS (E.G. WATER)NoNoBest1No
    HIGH VISCOSITY LIQUIDS (E.G. GLYCEROL, OIL)OkNoBestNo
    INSULATION AND INSULATING MATERIALSNoNoBest5No
    MOIST SOILBestOkNoOk
    DRY SOIL, POWDERS, GRANULAR MATERIALSBest2OkNoOk
    CONCRETEBest3Best3NoOk4
    ROCKBest3Best3NoOk4
    OTHER SOLIDSBest3OkNoOk
    VOLUMETRIC SPECIFIC HEATNoNoNoBest
    THERMAL DIFFUSIVITYNoNoNoBest
    1 In low viscosity liquids, the read time should be set to the minimum allowed 1 minute to avoid free convection.

    2 In dry granular materials where contact resistance can be significant, extending the read time to the maximum allowed 10 minutes will produce the most accurate results.

    3 In solid materials where a pilot hole has been drilled and contact resistance can be significant, using thermal grease and extending the read time to the maximum allowed 10 minutes will produce the most accurate results.

    4 The SH-1 sensor will take accurate measurements in rock and cured concrete, but it is very difficult to drill small diameter, parallel holes in these materials to accommodate the SH-1 needles.

    5 The KS-1 needle in default mode (Low Power, 1 min read time). Heater temperatures with the other probes are too high for insulation measurements.

  • Manuals and Software
  • KD2 Pro Video

     

Thermal Properties Sensors

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  • TR-1 Sensor

    The large (10cm long, 2.4mm diameter) single needle TR-1 sensor measures thermal conductivity and thermal resistivity (part number 40352). The TR-1 was designed for use in soil, concrete and other granular or solid materials. If measuring cured concrete (or any other material that requires drilling a pilot hole) check out the RK-1 sensor.

    The TR-1 sensor should not be used in liquids. The TR-1 conforms to ASTM 5334 and the lab portion of IEEE 442-03. Contact METER if you are unsure if the TR-1 is the right sensor for your application.

  • RK-1 Sensor

    The 6cm long, 3.9mm diameter single needle RK-1 sensor measures thermal conductivity and thermal resistivity (part number 40351). The RK-1 was designed for use in rock, concrete and other solid materials that require the drilling of a pilot hole.

    The RK-1 sensor should not be used in liquids. Contact METER if you have questions about using the RK-1 in your application.

    RK-1 quick start guide

  • RK-1 Sensor Video

     
  • KS-1 Sensor

    The small 6cm long, 1.3mm diameter single needle KS-1 sensor (part number 40354) measures thermal conductivity and thermal resistivity of liquids and insulating materials. Contact METER if you have questions about using the KS-1 in materials other than liquids or insulating materials.

  • SH-1 Sensor

    The dual needle SH-1 sensor (3cm long, 1.3mm diameter, 6mm spacing) measures volumetric heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, and thermal resistivity (part number 40353). The SH-1 is compatible with most solid and granular materials.

    The SH-1 sensor should not be used in liquids because of the large heat pulse it puts out. Contact METER if you have questions about measuring volumetric heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and/or thermal conductivity/resistivity.

  • Thermal properties of fluids

     
  • Sensor Comparisons

     

    SENSORTR-1RK-1KS-1SH-1
    MEASUREMENTRead time- 5 MinutesRead time- 10 MinutesRead time- 60 SecondsRead time- 2 Minutes
    ACCURACY(Conductivity): ± 10% from 0.2 – 4 W/(m· K)
    ±0.02 W/(m· K) from 0.01 – 0.2 W/(m· K)
    (Conductivity): ±10% from 0.2 – 6 W/(m· K)
    ±0.02 W/(m· K) from 0.1 – 0.2 W/(m· K)
    (Conductivity): ±5% from 0.2 – 2 W/(m· K)
    ±0.01 W/(m· K) from 0.02 – 0.2 W/(m· K)
    (Conductivity) ± 10% from 0.2 – 2 W/(m· K)
    ±0.01 W/(m· K) from 0.02 – 0.2 W/(m· K)
    (Diffusivity) ±10% at conductivities above 0.1 W/(m· K)
    (Volumetric Specific Heat) ±10% at conductivities above 0.1 W/(m· K)
    RANGESK: 0.1 to 4 W/(m·K)

    R: 25 to 1000 °C·cm/W

    K: 0.1 to 6 W/(m·K)

    R: 17 to 1000 °C cm/W

    K: 0.02 to 2 W/(m·K)

    R: 50 to 5000 °C cm/W

    K: 0.02 to 2.00 W /(m· K)

    R: 50 to 5000 °C·cm/W

    0.1 to 1 mm2/s (diffusivity)

    0.5 to 4 mJ/(m3K) (volumetric specific heat

    ENVIRONMENT–50 to 150 °C–50 to 150 °C–50 to 150 °C–50 to 150 °C
    DIMENSIONS10 cm length

    2.4 mm diameter

    6 cm length

    3.9 mm diameter

    6 cm length

    1.27 mm diameter

    30 mm length

    1.30 mm diameter

    2 needles, 6 mm spacing

    SAMPLE SIZESample size is dependent on the thermal properties of the material being tested. In general a 2cm radius of sample material around the needle(s) is sufficient for samples with thermal conductivities around 0.5 W/mK. Samples with lower conductivity (i.e. insulation) can be tested with a smaller sample size. Samples with a higher conductivity (i.e. granite) will require a larger sample to avoid boundary effects.

    KD2 Pro Sensor Compatibility

    SAMPLE MATERIALTR-1RK-1KS-1SH-1
    LOW VISCOSITY LIQUIDS (E.G. WATER)NoNoBest1No
    HIGH VISCOSITY LIQUIDS (E.G. GLYCEROL, OIL)OkNoBestNo
    INSULATION AND INSULATING MATERIALSNoNoBest5No
    MOIST SOILBestOkNoOk
    DRY SOIL, POWDERS, GRANULAR MATERIALSBest2OkNoOk
    CONCRETEBest3Best3NoOk4
    ROCKBest3Best3NoOk4
    OTHER SOLIDSBest3OkNoOk
    VOLUMETRIC SPECIFIC HEATNoNoNoBest
    THERMAL DIFFUSIVITYNoNoNoBest
    1 In low viscosity liquids, the read time should be set to the minimum allowed 1 minute to avoid free convection.

    2 In dry granular materials where contact resistance can be significant, extending the read time to the maximum allowed 10 minutes will produce the most accurate results.

    3 In solid materials where a pilot hole has been drilled and contact resistance can be significant, using thermal grease and extending the read time to the maximum allowed 10 minutes will produce the most accurate results.

    4 The SH-1 sensor will take accurate measurements in rock and cured concrete, but it is very difficult to drill small small diameter, parallel holes in these materials to accommodate the SH-1 needles.

    5 The KS-1 needle in default mode (Low Power, 1 min read time). Heater temperatures with the other probes are too high for insulation measurements.

Thermal Properties Accessories

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  • TR-1 Sensor Pilot Pins

    Pilot pins for the TR-1 Sensor can be purchased in packs of five. Ask for part number 30030.

  • TR-1 Sensor Drill Bits

    Need replacement drill bits for making pilot holes for your TR-1 sensor? Ask for part number 40052. The bit is hardened steel, 2.40mm diameter, 117mm long.

  • RK-1 Hammer Bits

    Need replacement roto hammer bits for making pilot holes for your RK-1 sensor? The bit is a 5/32″ SDS-Plus Drill bit, 4″ usable length (6″ TL), 4-flute design for fast dust removal.

  • Arctic Alumina

    Arctic Alumina thermal grease helps improve contact between the sensor needle and the material being measured. Ask for part number 40050 pricing and availability.

Thermal Properties Testing Services

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  • ASTM D5334 Thermal Resistivity Testing, Thermal Dryout Curve

    The thermal dryout curve (thermal resistivity vs. water content relationship) is determined on a customer-supplied sample.  ASTM Test Method D5334 thermal resistivity measurements are made at the as-found water content, saturated, and oven-dry conditions at room temperature.  The thermal dryout curve is interpolated using the combination method described here.

    A brief report describing the test method, thermal dryout curve, and sample dry bulk density is emailed to the customer within 15 working days of sample receipt at METER.   Testing and delivery of results can be expedited for a fee.

    Soil samples should be tightly confined in rigid containers to preserve desired bulk density.  Minimum sample size is 4 cm diameter X 10 cm length.

    Sample size is dependent on the thermal properties of the material being tested. In general a 2cm radius of sample material around the needle(s) is sufficient for samples with thermal conductivities around 0.5 W/mK. Samples with lower conductivity (i.e. insulation) can be tested with a smaller sample size. Samples with a higher conductivity (i.e. granite) will require a larger sample to avoid boundary effects.

    See Instructions for collecting samples for thermal analysis.

    View an example report for more information. All data sets come with each report.

  • ASTM D5334 Thermal resistivity testing, as-received plus oven dry

    The thermal resistivity/conductivity of a customer-supplied sample is measured at the moisture and density conditions at which the sample is received, and at the oven dry condition to characterize the worst-case thermal scenario.

    Measurements are made at three locations in the sample at room temperature and are conducted in accordance to ASTM Test Method D5334.  A brief report describing the test method, thermal resistivity test results, sample as-received volumetric water content and sample dry bulk density is emailed to the customer within 15 working days of sample receipt at METER. Testing and delivery of results can be expedited for a fee.

    Soil samples should be tightly confined in rigid containers to preserve desired bulk density.  Minimum sample size is 4 cm diameter X 10 cm length.

    Sample size is dependent on the thermal properties of the material being tested. In general a 2cm radius of sample material around the needle(s) is sufficient for samples with thermal conductivities around 0.5 W/mK. Samples with lower conductivity (i.e. insulation) can be tested with a smaller sample size. Samples with a higher conductivity (i.e. granite) will require a larger sample to avoid boundary effects.

    See Instructions for collecting samples for thermal analysis.

    View our report for more information. All data sets come with each report.

  • ASTM D5334 Thermal Resistivity Testing, As-Received

    The thermal resistivity/conductivity of a customer-supplied sample is measured at the moisture and density conditions at which the sample is received.  Measurements are made at three locations in the sample at room temperature and are conducted in accordance to ASTM Test Method D5334. A brief report describing the test method and thermal resistivity test results is emailed to the customer within 15 working days of sample receipt at METER.  Testing and delivery of results can be expedited for a fee.  Soil samples should be tightly confined in rigid containers to preserve desired bulk density.  Minimum sample size is 4 cm diameter X 10 cm length.

    Sample size is dependent on the thermal properties of the material being tested. In general a 2cm radius of sample material around the needle(s) is sufficient for samples with thermal conductivities around 0.5 W/mK. Samples with lower conductivity (i.e. insulation) can be tested with a smaller sample size. Samples with a higher conductivity (i.e. granite) will require a larger sample to avoid boundary effects.

    See Instructions for collecting samples for thermal analysis.

  • Thermal Sample Volumetric Water Content and Dry Bulk Density Measurement

    The volumetric water content and dry bulk density of a soil/concrete/grout sample is determined in the state at which the sample is received at METER.  This service is offered as an addition to service ASTM D5334 soil/concrete/grout thermal resistivity testing, as-received density and water content, and the sample should be shipped as outlined in the description of that service.  Note that this service does not include manipulating the sample to a prescribed water content or density.

    Sample size is dependent on the thermal properties of the material being tested. In general a 2cm radius of sample material around the needle(s) is sufficient for samples with thermal conductivities around 0.5 W/mK. Samples with lower conductivity (i.e. insulation) can be tested with a smaller sample size. Samples with a higher conductivity (i.e. granite) will require a larger sample to avoid boundary effects.

    See Instructions for collecting samples for thermal analysis.

    View our report for more information. All data sets come with each report.
  • Fluid Thermal Conductivity Testing

    The thermal conductivity is determined on a customer-supplied fluid sample in the as-received condition using the transient heated needle method. All measurements are made at room temperature, but sample temperature control is available for an additional fee.

    A brief report describing the test method and results is emailed to the customer within 15 working days of sample receipt at METER.  Testing and delivery of results can be expedited for a fee.

    Minimum sample volume is approximately 50 mL. Note that fluids with lower viscosity (thinner) than water cannot be measured reliably, and that the maximum test temperature is limited in most samples.  Please contact METER to discuss measurement limitations.

    Sample size is dependent on the thermal properties of the material being tested. In general a 2cm radius of sample material around the needle(s) is sufficient for samples with thermal conductivities around 0.5 W/mK. Samples with lower conductivity (i.e. insulation) can be tested with a smaller sample size. Samples with a higher conductivity (i.e. granite) will require a larger sample to avoid boundary effects.

    See Instructions for collecting samples for thermal analysis.

    View our report for more information. All data sets come with each report.

  • Material Thermal Conductivity Testing

    The thermal conductivity is determined on a customer-supplied sample in accordance with standard testing protocols.  All measurements are made in triplicate at room temperature, but sample temperature control is available for an additional fee.  A brief report describing the test method and results is emailed to the customer within 15 working days of sample receipt at METER.  Testing and delivery of results can be expedited for a fee.

    Note that the sample needs to be at least 10 cm in length,  4 cm in diameter, and soft enough for direct sensor insertion or able to be drilled with a 2.4 mm diameter X 10 cm long hole.  Please contact METER to discuss size and material limitations.

    Sample size is dependent on the thermal properties of the material being tested. In general a 2cm radius of sample material around the needle(s) is sufficient for samples with thermal conductivities around 0.5 W/mK. Samples with lower conductivity (i.e. insulation) can be tested with a smaller sample size. Samples with a higher conductivity (i.e. granite) will require a larger sample to avoid boundary effects.

    See Instructions for collecting samples for thermal analysis.

  • Material Thermal Conductivity/Resistivity, Diffusivity, Volumetric Heat Capacity Testing

    The thermal conductivity/resistivity, diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity is determined on a customer-supplied sample in the as-received condition using the dual needle heat pulse method. All measurements are made at room temperature, but sample temperature control is available for an additional fee.  A brief report describing the test method and results is emailed to the customer within 15 working days of sample receipt at METER.  Testing and delivery of results can be expedited for a fee.

    Note that the sample needs to be at least 2.5 cm X 2.5 cm X 3 cm, and soft enough for direct sensor insertion or able to be drilled with 1.27 mm diameter X 3 cm long hole.  Please contact METER to discuss size and material limitations.

    Sample size is dependent on the thermal properties of the material being tested. In general a 2cm radius of sample material around the needle(s) is sufficient for samples with thermal conductivities around 0.5 W/mK. Samples with lower conductivity (i.e. insulation) can be tested with a smaller sample size. Samples with a higher conductivity (i.e. granite) will require a larger sample to avoid boundary effects.

    See Instructions for collecting samples for thermal analysis.

    View our example report for more information. All data sets come with each report.

  • Thermal Sample Temperature Control

    Sample temperature can be controlled during any of the thermal testing procedures that are available through METER Lab Services.  The range of available temperature control is -40 °C to +150 °C.  Please contact METER to discuss temperature control beyond this range and limitations with temperature control of fluid samples.

    See Instructions for collecting samples for thermal analysis.

Thermal Properties Education

Explore thermal properties educational materials.

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